MODERN ARCHITECTURE

Modern architecture is more of an outcome of technological evolution than history. With the increase in complications in the world, nature has offered a few restrictions to us, in turn of our selfish activities.

 

Period..

Ever since the first half of the 20th century , the modern architecture and the technologically advanced styles have come into limelight.

 

Father of modern architecture.

This honour has been entitled to Louis Henry Sullivan. He was an American architect who was also referred to as the “father of skyscrapers”. He has been a mentor to many pioneering works of architecture. He had also been into theatre creations along with his partner.

 

Revolutions of science..

The breaking away through the historical science was made in hands with the evolution of science. The engineering, technology and the chemistry behind the building materials had faced a sudden upgrading which lead to the desires of out breaking the stereotypes. The invent of systematic and completely scientific constructions had starting taking places with a fresh zeal.

Materials..

The use of cast iron, plate glass and reinforced concrete were proven to build stronger, lighter and taller constructions. The manufacture of glass plate had led to the construction of larger window panes.

The main motive behind such evolutions and changes were greater accommodations within a shorter space. This needed systematic planning and better technologies.

Examples of such constructions of that period include

  1. The Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton in the year of 1851.
  2. Home Insurance building in Chicago by William Le Baron Jenney in the year of1884.
  3. The 1889 Paris Universal Exposition.

The elevator..

Another important invention of technology was the elevator. The construction of high rise, rather sky scrapping buildings had led to need for a system of transport within the buildings. Elisha Otis had invented the safety elevator. This had its first demonstration done at the Crystal Palace exposition in the year of 1852.

Elisha Graves Otis

He is the founder of the present day Otis Elevator company. Being an American industrialist in his early life, he had invented the safety device that prevents an elevator from falling down as a result of gravitational pull , in case the electric cable fails to work at an instant.

The advent of modern Europe.

With the inventions gaining a successful progress, a few architects, during the end of the 19th century, had started challenging their traditional styles of that period which included the Neoclassical styles and Beaus Art forms. These two patterns had been dominating the architectures of Europe and United States in a significant time duration.

Art Nouveau.

This is an international form that includes various modern architectural designs, especially the decorative arts. This included the carvings of various natural forms of life like the plants and flowers. This was often termed as the academic art.

Examples in Europe.

Some examples of architecture from the period of advent of modern styles in the European countries are :

  1. The Glassgow school of Art.
  2. Austrian Postal Savings Bank, etc.

ARCHITECTURAL SENTIMENTS

A Style…

Owing to the curiosity after visiting the vast number of buildings; the huge variety of architectural styles; starting from the medieval variations to the modern ones; I have noticed that at every era, a number of architects have implemented their idea of design. Every architect definitely derives an inspiration from the works that have been grouped under a head, for example, the Islamic architectures, the Gothic ones, etc. However, at the end of the day, it is the designer’s creation. It is an unique form that makes our jaws drop.

Here’s a brief listing of some of the world famous architectural styles that have been encouraging the beautiful minds of our architects from all time:

  1. Modern architecture
  2. Gothic architecture
  3. Neoclassical architecture
  4. Classical architecture
  5. Victorian architecture
  6. Romanesque architecture
  7. Ancient Greek architecture
  8. Gothic Revival architecture
  9. Vernacular architecture
  10. Ancient Roman architecture.
  11. Renaissance architecture
  12. Georgian architecture
  13. Greek Revival architecture
  14. Post-modern architecture
  15. Classicism
  16. Italianate architecture
  17. American craftsman
  18. Islamic architecture
  19. Hindu temple architecture
  20. Byzantine architecture
  21. Federal architecture
  22. Medieval architecture
  23. Ancient Egyptian architecture
  24. Chinese architecture
  25. Sustainable architecture
  26. Baroque architecture
  27. Colonial revival architecture
  28. Brutalist architecture
  29. Tudor architecture
  30. Second Empire architecture
  31. Contemporary architecture
  32. Japanese architecture
  33. Dutch Colonial Revival architecture
  34. English Gothic architecture
  35. Palladian architecture
  36. Mission Revival architecture
  37. Edwardian architecture
  38. Pueblo Revival architecture
  39. American Queen Anne style

and there has a lot more in the history along a lot more that are on the verge of getting added to it.

 

Being informative..

Architectures talk. They talk of the past. They talk of those moments when there was life in it; when people actually reigned through them; when they were in their present. Architectures share all their memories in moments.

The reason behind the development and the importance of giving regional styles an elite place in the list, is that, it speaks of a particular region; their culture, their people, them at a particular time; it takes us into that regional present in the history.

The spaces between the verbal descriptions by the tour guide are filled with the captured tiny details of the carvings. There is a reason why the Mohenjodaro culture had their Great Bath; there is a reason why we have studied that the Indus Valley civilisation is about those well planned houses surrounded by the verandas.

The colloquial etiquettes are dug out of history through  these architectures. That tallest tower in the fort from where the king would see his entire kingdom all at once has a sentiment embracing its walls.

 

Our ancestors talk..

The moments in the past, when our ancestors had their present cannot be just a page in the history. The architectures tell us the way they lived and the way they loved.

 

We are all in bound within these peripheries of trust that these memories are strong enough to retain forever.

Victoria Memorial: Indo-Sarecenic Ravel Architecture

The large marble building in Kolkata summoned as the Victoria Memorial is an example of the rich heritage of Kolkata, West Bengal, India since 1921. It is dedicated to the memory of Queen Victoria and is at present used as a museum and a tourist site by the Indian Ministry of Culture.

ARCHITECT :

This beautiful structure had been architected by the then president of The Royal Institute of British Architects, William Emersion.

The gardens of the Victoria memorial had been designed by Lord Redesdale and David Parin.

The bridge at the northern aspect accompanied by the garden gates had been designed by Vincent J.Esch that is ,the then assistant of William Emersion.

 

ARCHITECTURE:

Influence and Style:

This is a design in the Indo-Sarecenic Ravel style conjugating the  British and Mughal elements with influences derived from the Venetian, Egyptian, Deccani and Islamic architects.

Structure:

The building is 338 feet by 228 feet and rises to a height of 184 feet. This construction is made of the Markana marble.

Markana marble :

This is a type of high quality white marble used specifically for structural décor purpose. The type is so called due to it’s mining origin in the town of Markana situated in Rajasthan, India. The same has also been used in the construction of the majestic Taj Mahal at Agra, India.

Geology and property:

In the Markana area , five steeply dipping bands are found. These bands refer to the orientation of a geologic feature.

The Markana marble being one of the two calcite marble varieties of India is not subjected to any kind of treatment after getting mined. Rather they are directly subjected to cutting and chiselling straight away.

CONSTRUCTION CREDIT:

The work of constructing the design had been entrusted with the Messrs.Martin & Co. of Calcutta after a few years of the laying of the foundation stone.

FEATURES:

The top of the central dome of the construction is embraced by the 16 feet figure of the Angel of Victory. There are a few other archaeological structures surrounding this dome as well.

There are 25 galleries in the Victoria memorial.

A few of them to be named are :

  • The royal gallery
  • The central hall
  • The national leader’s gallery
  • Portrait hall
  • The sculpture gallery

And so on.

 

GARDENS:

The beautiful greenery, sprawling across a 64 acre area. They are currently maintained by a team of 21 gardeners.

On the Esch’s bridge, there is a bronze statue of Queen Victoria seated on throne wearing the robes of the Star of India. This was made by George Frampton.

The Star of India or the Most Exalted Star of India is an order od chivalry that was established by Queen Victoria in the year of 1861. The order had inclusions of members of three classes. Namely:

1)Knight Grand Commander

2)       Knight Commander

3) Companion

Sir George James Frampton, having born on the 18th day of June,1860 was a notable British Sculptor.

 

This place is worth a visit.

MALTA: Home of Ancient Megaliths

Maltese Prehistory : Malta rests on an underwater ridge which extends from North Africa to Sicily. It is believed from the proofs kept by the marine fossils that is embedded on rocks in the highest point of Malta, that this place happened to be submerged somewhere in the distant past.

The ridge is believed to have pushed up resulting in the Strait of Gibraltar closing through tectonic activity. The sea was lower and Malta lied on a bridge of dry land that extended between the two continents, surrounded by large lakes.

NEOLITHIC AND TEMPLE PERIOD

Neolithic Age :

This age is also referred to as the Stone Age. According to the ASPRO chronology, this was the period of development of the human technology, starting with in some parts of Middle East further spreading across to some other parts through the globe.

Traditionally, however the Neolithic Age is considered to be the last part of the Stone Age succeeding towards the terminal Holocene Epipaleolithic period during which the commencement of activities such as farming were introduced leading to a ‘Neolithic Revolution’.

This period and Malta : The first Neolithic period  had convincingly arrived from Sicily during 5200BC leaving evidences of fishing , farming and some hunting activities.

Temple period at Malta :This period starting at around 3600BC is one of the most notable periods of Malta’s history.

Ggantija :

This is a megalithic temple complex of the Neolithic period situated on the Mediterranean island of Gozo.  These temples are the oldest of the free standing Megalithic temples of Malta. This structure is also a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Architecture of Ggantija:

The temples are elements of a site in fertility rite. A fertility rite is a religious rite that enacts either actually or symbolically the sexual acts or reproductive processes to be specific.

The Megalithic temples consist of two complete temples and an incomplete one. They face the equinox sunrise and are built side by side , enclosed within a boundary wall. The southerly one is the larger and older one, claiming to be preserved from a past of around 3600 BC.

They have five aspes. An aspe is the recess of the shape of a semicircle covered by a hemispherical vault or a semi dome, popularly known as the Exedra. There are traces of plaster that covered the irregular wall that is still clinging between the blocks.

The temples bear the shape of a typical cover leaf having their inner walls marking the shape. Such an effort in that period of technology is definitely a remarkable one in history.

There are a series of semi-circular aspes connected with the central passage. This led to the assumption that perhaps the aspes were originally covered by roofing.

Small stones have been discovered attaching the evidences of association of ball bearings used for transportation purposes. The five aspes contain various altars having used as a site for animal sacrifice as is evident from the animal bones found.

Lotus Temple: Abode Of Faith

Location :The Lotus Temple located in the Indian capital city of Delhi is actually the Baha’i House Of Worship. To be more précise, this temple is situated in Bahapur, a village in New Delhi.

Architect:  The name of the Iranian architect is FariborzSahba. He is now a resident of Canada.

FariborzSahba : He is an Iranian – American architect. He designs the Baha’i architectures. He possesses a Master’s degree educational qualification crowned by the faculty of Fine Arts from the University of Tehran.

Expressionist Architectural Style : This was an architectural movement in Europe. This indicated that the architecture contained the individual thinking and ideas of the architecture which may or may not be influenced by some established structures. They are outcomes of some emotional effect or portraying a thought through symbolism.

Baha’i House of Worship: This is the place of worship of the Baha’i faith. The Baha’i faith teaches equality among all people irrespective of their religion or caste. This faith is a religion that preaches the essential worth of every religion and improvises unity among all.

Structure :The structure of this temple is an inspiration of the lotus flower. This house of worship contains 27 freely hanging marble petals clustered in groups of three forming a total of 9 sides. There are nine doors on the nine sides shown by the petals. Each of which opens up to the central hall that can accommodate around 2500 people at a time.

The surface of this House of Worship has been made of white marble that has been mined from the Greek Mountain named Penteli Mountain. This is the marble using which every other, whether ancient of modern day Baha’i monuments are made.

Besides, the area in which the temple stands has 26 acres asit’s own property. This area contains ponds and gardens ornamentally decorating the temple.

Construction and credits : This magnificent construction of the beautiful architecture was constructed by the ECC Constructions Group possessed  by the Larsen &Tourbo Limited.

Larsen &TourboLimited : This is an India based multi – national company with its headquarters in Mumbai, India. The company holds its business interests in different sectors such as construction. Engineering, informational technology and some more.

Fund credit :A major part of the fund required for purchasing the land for this construction purpose had been donated by ArdishirRustampur of Hyderabad , Sindh.

Electricity : The entire temple glows using solar power. This saves the cost of electricity. The Lotus Temple is the first ever temple in Delhi that uses solar power as its source of electricity.

Tourism:  This place is increasingly attracting more and more tourists every year. To around 70 million tourists in the late 2001 to around 100 million tourists have been visiting this temple in the year of 2014 and the number is still counting.

Attraction : This places attracts tourists due its rich heritage of professional architecture along with art and religious works.

Char Minar: Much Ado About Nothing

Location : The CharMinar is a historical monument located in  Hyderabad, Telengana, India. The monument is located on the east bank of the Musi River.

MusiRiver : This river is basically a tributary belonging to the Krishna River that flows through the Deccan Plateau across the Telangana state in India.

Pride:  Charminar has it’s name enlisted in the Archaeological and Architectural treasures on the official list of Monuments that is prepared by the Archaeological Survey Of India.

Archaeological Survey of India: Also, abbreviated as the ASI is a National government agency that is a wing of the Ministry of Culture. This body is responsible for archaeological research and the preservance of the architecture heritage of India.

History: The Charminar had been built by the fifth ruler of Qutb Dynasty, Sultan Muhammad QuliQutb Shah in the year of 1591. Due to this amazing historical architecture, this landmark has become a global icon of Hyderabad.

Indo-Islamic Architecture Style :This style of architecture basically portrays the Indian Architectural System along with the taste of Islamic Culture. This kind of shapes basically took place with the advent of Islamic tradition in the Indian Subcontinent.

Persian Architecture:  This kind of architecture sights the traits of Iranian architecture and flavours of architects from different parts of West and Central Asia.

The architecture of Charminar : The Charminar is a form of indo – Islamic Architecture with influences derived from the Persian Architectural styles.

History in the History :At a time during the reign of the Mughal governorship, the south western minaret had fallen into pieces having struck by a lightning of some enormous intensity for the monument. It is was then repaired at a cost of 60,000 rupees. Later, in the year of 1824 , the monument had under done a finer repairmen owing a cost of one lakh rupees.

Structure :The Charminar is basically a masjid. It bears the shape of a square. There are four, each approximately around 66 feet long, grand arches. Each grand arch faces a chief point that leads to four different streets. At each corner of the square stands a 56 metre long minaret having a double balcony. Each individual minaret have been crowned by a dome with petal like designs at its base. There are a total of 149 steps that leads to the top most floor. The entire structure has beautiful architectural decorations throughout with beautifully designed balustrades and balconies.

There is an underground connecting tunnel that opens up into the Gollakonda fort in Hyderabad. It is said that during a siege , this was used as an escape route. The, now dried path was once filled with water. Women were at first allowed to pass through it followed by the men who needed to flee off site.

This architecture possesses a mosque at the end of the open roof in the western end.  Also, there is a water cistern in the middle of the mosque bearing a small fountain.

Looking for a home in Playa del Carmen? Overlook these 7 flaws

Individual tastes and preferences will always defer no matter what. Everybody loves personalisation as it gives a sense of ownership. There is scope for personalisation in every aspect even while buying a home in Playa del Carmen.

In fact a house gives utmost freedom to decorate it as the owners want. Therefore this should fact should be kept in mind while finalizing a house as sometimes buyers tend to put off a deal just because they are not satisfied with minor features such as paint or wallpapers.

Since buying a house in Playa del Carmen is in itself a huge investment that people don’t want to spend on other repairs. However real estate experts that home owners should deter from minor repairs or expenses. While deciding on the budget is advisable to keep spare money to cover some minor repairs which are as follows:

  • Wallpaper: This is a minute aspect one would want to lose a perfect deal over. The taste of buyer and seller will definitely defer hence be reflected in the choice of wallpapers. This doesn’t mean it is some irreversible damage. Very often one indulges in home improvement after couple of years residing in it. But there is no harm in doing it before one formally starts residing in a new house.
  • Kitchen cabinets: Style is ever changing and appliances of utility need constant renewal. This applies to kitchen cabinets as cabinet re-facing is an inexpensive task. With few extra bucks one can make the old cabinets and drawers look new.
  • Unnecessary wall adornments: Mirrors are common in this category which was a rage sometime back. With the changing trend one would like to put some wall hanging or painting. If none suits then one can simply paint it for the fresh look.
  • Window decor: One of the most noticeable features of a house is the windows. If they are done in a tasteless manner then it might put off the buyer. But one should remember that it gives an opportunity to the perspective buyer to incorporate in their rich style.
  • Broken heating or cooling system: Both are quintessential for modern day living. If the damage isn’t too huge and under control then the house should be given a thumbs up. Decisions shouldn’t be hasty as it might lead to over-estimation of costs.
  • Closet doors: Closets are essentials and it is important that they remain in perfect condition as valuables are stored in them. However a few missing doors isn’t some damage that cannot be repaired.
  • Bathroom grout: A discolored one is a signal for danger as majority of buyers understand it as a sign of a moldy house. They shouldn’t base their judgment on just what they see. A home inspector should be contacted to find out the real damage and whether it can be fixed with a little scrubbing.

At the end of the day it is definitely the buyers call but they need to be guided properly. Some issues which seem huge at the surface might be a superficial one. Hence a good buyer should go to the depth of the problem to figure out its impact and not stick to ‘seeing is believing’ phrase.

This is a post by our author of the week, Marco. He is a real estate expert and blogger. He frequently writes on real estate, travel and good.